• Everyone has learnt a lesson for a story.
• A story is metaphorical when used to communicate something more than the events itself.
• Symbols are the smallest units of metaphor.
• The story is a metaphor for the ideas it expresses.
• The Importance of fantasy.
The Importance of Fantasy:
Fantasy is the inner world of the child.
Two types of play:
• Imitative – follow the leader, cook like a mother
• Fantasy or symbolic play – a chair becomes a rocket.
Options about what to do when presented difficult issues
• New possibilities, creative solutions for overcoming problems
• Ways to dealing more effectively with emotional difficulties
• Options for new ways of reacting to situations.
• Allows the child to stay longer in the situation.
• Provides the means for the child to stay look at his powerful feelings from a distance.
Unknown Thought (Bollas, 1987):
• “ I know this exactly but I have not ever thought it” (Margot Sunderland, 2007)
• When an unknown thought can be named, then it can be thought through and felt through.
• Children need emotional education and therapeutic story help achieve this education.
The Child and the therapeutic story:
• Must be aptly chosen
• Must identify with the main character
• Must suffer the defeats, obstacles and courage of the main character
• Must feel the character’s joys and relief in coming through conflict and crisis to resolution.
• Must be indirect – this where safety lies.
When to tell a Therapeutic Story:
When the child is
– Giving full attention
– Being receptive
– Not distracted
– Before they go to sleep.
Important things to remember:
Story can be
-Do not put irrelevant character or side plots into the story,
-Symbolic and not literal,
-Can be interactive.
Therapeutic Story Making:
• Identify a list of emotional issues that children may experience.
• Set a therapeutic objective
• What would you like to change?
• Think of a strategy to achieve this change.
Develop a framework:
• Put the issues into a different metaphorical context ……to which the child can relate.
• Borrow ideas from stories you know.
• Start at the end a work backwards.
• Present the main character as experience the same emotional problem as the child- Metaphorical conflict.
• Show the main character using similar methods to deal with the problem as those used by the child – personify unconscious processes and potential in the form of heroes/helpers and villains or obstructions.
• Show how these methods lead your character problems which lead to failure –metaphorical crisis.
• The story so far should have captured the whole context of how that character came to that moment of crisis in their life.
Move towards the solution – vital part of the journey-someone in the story appears to help the character change direction and to move on to a better coping mechanism which makes them feel a lot better.
• Don’t move too quick – story becomes unbelievable.
• Show the journey from crisis to positive solution – new
sense of identification
• Culminates with a celebration in which the protagonist’s special worth is acknowledged.
A symbol – a word or image which implies one thing but means something else.
• Locked door
• Hole in the heart
Metaphors – using language to talk about one thing while meaning something else.
• Watching paint dry.
• Not the sharpest knife in the drawer.
• Give me the bottom line.
• Don’t put your eggs in one basket.
• Metaphorical Conflict – Birth of funny looking duckling.
• Unconscious processes and potentials – Mother defends him, cites positive qualities, gets a first look at swans.
• Parallel learning situations – Learning to swim, take care of himself and fly.
• Metaphorical crisis – Attack in the marsh, cold winter in the pond.
• New identification – Beholds beautiful new image in the water.
• Celebration – The old swans are in awe of him.
• In groups think of a fairytale that could be used as a therapeutic story. Put it into the above framework. The Magic Forest
Once upon a time there was a young child called Matilda. Matilda’s parents were the king and queen of the magic forest. The king, Matilda’s father was very ……………….. and the queen, Matilda’s mother was always ……………….. Matilda was the kind of child who never …………………… but always ………. Sometimes the king, the queen and Matilda would ………………… but they never ……………… All of them would sometimes go …………and Matilda would feel ……….. One day while walking in the magic forest, Matilda lost her way. She tried and tried to see if she could get back home to the castle. Matilda became ……….. After a while a wizard came hobbling along the path and told Matilda ………………… The wizard also gave …………. The first thing that Matilda did was ………. and she ……………
Finally, after wandering around for a long time, Matilda recognised the path back to the castle. She hurried towards it but suddenly she came across a …………… Now she felt ………… As the sun was setting Matilda trudged through the castle gates and into the castle where the king and queen were very, very, very, ………….. Her father the King told Matilda ………… Matilda felt …………. So told the king and queen……………… It had been a very tiring day for Matilda and she fell asleep. The king and queen watched Matilda as she slept and thought ……………
The next morning Matilda woke up and said to her self “………………………………………………………………………”
In groups, full in the blanks. Read your story out to the rest of the class. Devise an improvisation based around your story.
Promote a feeling of well-being and relaxation
Increase children’s willingness to communicate thoughts and feelings
Encourage active participation
Increase verbal proficiency
Encourage use of imagination and creativity
Encourage cooperation between students
Enhance listening skills
Identify the children’s interest • Animals • Superhero stories • Stories about thing children like to do – getting dirt, playing with friends, first experiences. Where do you find good stories? • Made up stories • Picture books • Family stories.
Key elements of a successful story time • Know and like your story • Know and like your audience • Make sure they match each other • Be flexible.
The secret to making stories exciting and fun • Vocal production • Body Language.
Vocal Production The following three core elements of vocal production need to be understood for anyone wishing to be an effective speaker: • Volume – to be heard. • Clarity – to be understood. • Variety – to add interest.
Volume This is not a question of treating the voice like the volume control on the TV remote. Some people have naturally soft voices and physically cannot bellow. Additionally, if the voice is raised too much, tonal quality is lost. Instead of raising the voice it should be ‘projected out’. Support the voice with lots of breath – the further you want to project the voice out, the more breath you need. When talking to a group or meeting, it is important to never aim your talk to the front row or just to the people nearest you, but to consciously project what you have to say to those furthest away. By developing a strong voice, as opposed to a loud voice, you will be seen as someone positive.
Clarity Some people tend to speak through clenched teeth and with little movement of their lips. It is this inability to open mouths and failure to make speech sounds with precision that is the root cause of inaudibility. The sound is locked into the mouth and not let out. To have good articulation it is important to unclench the jaw, open the mouth and give full benefit to each sound you make, paying particular attention to the ends of words. This will also help your audience as a certain amount of lip-reading will be possible.
Variety To make speech effective and interesting, certain techniques can be applied. However, it is important not to sound false or as if you are giving a performance. Whilst words convey meaning, how they are said reflects feelings and emotions. Vocal variety can be achieved by variations in: • Pace: This is the speed at which you talk. If speech is too fast then the listeners will not have time to assimilate what is being said. Nevertheless, it is a good idea to vary the pace – quickening up at times and then slowing down – this will help to maintain interest. • Volume: By raising or lowering volume occasionally, you can create emphasis. If you drop your voice to almost a whisper (as long as it is projected) for a sentence or two, it will make your audience suddenly alert, be careful not to overuse this technique. • Pitch – Inflection – Emphasis: When speaking in public, try to convey the information with as much vocal energy and enthusiasm as possible. This does not mean your voice has to swoop and dive all over the place in an uncontrolled manner. Try to make the talk interesting and remember that when you are nervous or even excited, vocal chords tense and shorten causing the voice to get higher. Emphasise certain words and phrases within the talk to convey their importance and help to add variety. • Pause: Pauses are powerful. They can be used for effect to highlight the preceding statement or to gain attention before an important message. Pauses mean silence for a few seconds. Listeners interpret meaning during pauses so have the courage to stay silent for up to five seconds – dramatic pauses like this convey authority and confidence. BodyLanguage Remember that you can convey so many feelings, attitudes and actions with your body. Apart from expressing emotion, you can use your body to act out character’s descriptions or episodes within the story.Bring your whole body into the story and you are onto a winning storytelling technique.For example, how would you act out a cowboy galloping along on his horse? This would probably involve your legs, your arms and moving your whole body in imitation of the rider.Bring your pirate to life by closing one eye to illustrate his patched eye, clench your fist and stick out a hooked finger for his ‘hook’ hand, and limp along for his peg leg. How would you act out a Ninja? You might do karate chops and raise your leg into the air as well as jerky head movements.
Ways to practice your storytelling technique • Record on your phone • A mirror will let you observe your face and body • Going over it in your head while driving, walking or on a bus. This will bring out the imaginative sparks. • Relax and taking it too seriously will lead to a lack of enthusiasm and fun.
Participation stories Children love to move, to see things develop in front of them and they love to talk, laugh and make themselves part of the story. • Refairns -Breathing – take a deep breath just before you want to join them. “And the the giant said …..” • Hand gestures • Conduct the children with a sweeping motion • Children will begin repeating when repetition become obvious, if you let them know what you want. Actions How to make sure the children are focused during story time Play a game of Magic Glue. Get everybody to stand up. Tell them to pick up their right leg with your hands. Now stick it to the floor with the magic glue. Push it down really hard in to the ground. Ask them “Is it stuck? Everybody stuck? Good, Now your left leg. Can you move your feet off the floor? You can show all sort of movements as you show them your feet is stuck to the floor. Have fun with it. Say things like “let’s run with our feet stuck to the floor, let jump with our feet stuck to floor, let’s skip with our feet stuck to the floor. Sounds • Insert sounds for words such as bell – ringing sound, giant – stomping sound. Individual parts If you are going to do this choose a very repetitive story such as Goldilocks and the three bears.
Game: Pop-up Story Book Age: 3 years+ Minimum number of participants: 2 Resources needed: Clear space, a story book. Other Benefits: This is an excellent listening game that can be played with any number of children. It helps them to engage in the storytelling process. Instructions: The teacher chooses a story to read that the children are familiar with. Each child is given a word. For example if the teacher was reading ‘Goldilocks and the Three Bears’, child A is given the word Goldilocks, child B, baby, child C, porridge, child D, bed and so on. When each child has been given a word the game can begin. All the children lie on the floor. When the child hears his/her word s/he must jump up. If they miss their turn they are out and can’t pop-up anymore.
Read the following movement story to the children. When they hear any of words underlined they must do the corresponding action. The teacher should go through each action at the beginning. Boast/boastful/boasting – stand up straight and puff out chest Woods – children make themselves into trees. Animals – each child choose a different animal found in the woods and move like that animal. Hare – make bunny ears with your hands. Fast – children move as fast as they can Run/ran – run on the spot Tortoise – children bend over as if they have something heavy on their back. Slow/slowly – children move in slow motion around the room. Once upon a time there was a very boastfulhare who lived in a woods with lots of other animals. He was always boasting about how fast he could run. He boasted “I’m the fastestanimal in the woods. No one can run as fast as me.” The other animals were tired of listening to him. One day the tortoise said to the hare “Hare, you are so boastful. I challenge you to race.” Hare laughed and said “Tortoise, you will never beat me. You are too slow and steady.” They decided whoever got to the other side of the woods the fastest was the winner. All the other animals in the woods came to watch the race. The hareran as fast as he could through the woods. After a while he thought to himself “I’m so fast that slowtortoise will never beat me. I think I will take a quick nap.” Soon, he fell asleep. The tortoise walked slowly through the woods. He passed the sleeping hare. The animals watched the tortoise near the finishing line. The animals cheered loudly. The hare woke up and ran as fast as he could through the woods to the finishing line but it was too late. The slowtortoise had won the race. All the animals in the wood congratulated the tortoise. The hare had to remind himself that he shouldn’t boast about his fast pace because slow and steady won the race.
More Movement Stories and Activities can be found in Movememt Start. Click below.
Other Storytelling Techniques
This is an excellent storytelling technique. Collect stones and put little pictures on them. Each child chooses a stone and the group can make a collective story.
The pictures on the stones influence the direction of the story. Once the children get use to idea of telling stories, you can get them to share their own stories. The story stones can be used to explore tell individual stories.
This story telling technique is known as a story path. It is fun and inexpensive. The children take it in turns to travel along a path which is a long sheet of paper with a hand drawn path and various images in order to tell a story. The story can be focused or they can make up the story as they go, The children can help create the path. The teacher can discuss the important elements of the story and deciding on appropriate images or cues can be a group decision.
To keep storytelling fun and exciting you can use a storytelling Jar. Fill the jar with coloured notes and on each not put a word or a picture. Everyone selects a note and the story can be decisive from the note. This can be a collective story or children can individually tell a story.
Just like the story stones and storytelling prompts jar, the DIY stone cubes can be used to provide some inspiration on how to start your story. Follow the instructions over at the “grey luster girl” website to create your own story cubes. Once done, you can toss the cubes around and see what object they land on. Whatever you land on, that’s the object you can include in your storytelling! You can also use multiple story cubes to structure your story. For example your story cubes can be used decide on the hero in your story, the setting, the villain and any other extra props to include. http://greylustergirl.com/diy-story-cubes-travel-game/ You can also buy story cubes at https://www.storycubes.com
What is a Story Sack? A story sack is a teaching and learning resource. Typically it is a large cloth bag containing a favourite children’s books along with supporting materials to help make sharing the book more engaging and interesting.
Why make a Story Sack? Story sacks are fun way for educators and children to share stories together, They were developed by Neil Griffiths as a popular, no threatening way to encourage educators and parents to start to share stories with children in a way that is positive, expressive, interactive and fun.
Who uses Story Sacks? Originally, it was mainly schools and preschools that used story sacks however they are increasingly used by other groups such as childminders, libraries health visitors, speech therapists, play specialists, social workers, children’s hospitals, family centres and adult learned.
How do you make a Story Sack? Start with a cloth bag or you can use a pillow case, a basket or a box, you just need something to contain your resources, Then you need to choose your story. You need to fill the sack with items. Here are some if things that are often included: • Soft toys/ puppets of the main characters • Costumes/props/scenery/photos to support the story • An audio recording/video of the story • A language based game • A non related non fiction book • Craft and activity ideas Things to remember when choosing Story Sack items Read and re-read your story. Ask yourself what are the main themes, who are the main characters, settings, colours, numbers, letters, sounds, communication/ listening skills. Can you incorporate first experience, new vocabulary and other topic based activities? What other activities can you link to the book that you have chosen.
Here are some ideas for story sacks based on famous stories The hungry caterpillar by Eric Carle • Soft toy caterpillar/butterfly • Lifecycle of a butterfly • Days of the weeks/number sequencing cards • Play food props • Non fiction books about butterflies/caterpillars • Activity ideas – fruit printing, painting butterflies.
Little red riding hood • A little red riding hood doll • Puppets for wolf/grandma/woodcutter • A basket full of flowers • A red cloak • Pictures of forest • Non fiction book about the forest/wolves • Activity ideas – recipe for making cakes for grandma.